She emailed me saying she had just read The Checklist Manifesto, by Atul Gawande, and asked for my help in creating a "reference checklist" for her staff - hopefully, it would help them cover all the bases when helping patrons at the Reference Desk.
I haven't actually read the book (although did read lots of reviews when it was published), but I think the general idea is summarized in this quote from the New York Times review:
In medicine, he writes, the problem is “making sure we apply the knowledge we have consistently and correctly.” Failure, he argues, results not so much from ignorance (not knowing enough about what works) as from ineptitude (not properly applying what we know works).
This is also true of reference work. Some sort of checklist or decision tree is probably covered in most library school reference text books, but I thought I'd take a crack at it. Of course, any checklist like this could vary widely by library, depending on available resources, but the following few questions might help make sure all bases are covered consistently:
Are you sure you understand the question?
- Don't be afraid to ask follow-up questions and to restate the question in your own words to make sure you and the patron are on the same page
Is the patron looking for a specific item?
- It's okay to use Amazon to verify the spelling of an author's name or title, and Novelist or other websites to check titles in a series. Once you know what you're looking for, be sure to check the local catalog, other libraries in the network, and also the state-wide catalog (if you have one) to interlibrary loan the item if necessary. If it's nowhere to be found, should this item be purchased? (refer to your Collection Development policy)
- If the patron is comfortable with it, many books are now available online through Google Books, Project Gutenberg, and other ebook sources
Is the patron looking for a subject?
- Use the catalog to find the right Dewey range so the patron can browse the shelf, and see where other libraries have cataloged their books on this subject
- Remember to also check
- other collections (Reference, Young Adult, Childrens, Oversized, Vertical File, Special Collections, etc)
- research databases (especially for homework research or very current information)
- the library's website (for subject guides, readers advisory, web links, etc)
- general internet searching to find public websites
- remember also to search government websites - add site:.gov to Google searches to limit to government websites
- if you're in the right Dewey section but there are no books on the specific topic, look for a general book on the subject and check the book's index for your specific topic
Is the question about something local?
- Check the local newspaper, local websites (especially newspaper and municipal websites, as well as meetup.com and yelp.com for socializing and events), printed brochures and fliers available in the library, event calendars, etc. Remember also to ask coworkers, as they may have heard of something or be involved with it
Is your answer still “no” or “I don't know” - what else can you do?
- Is the problem that you're in the right place and the information is just not there, or that you can't think of where to look? Keep the patron informed, but don't waste their time - there is nothing wrong with referring them to a larger or specialized library, another Town office, or organization that is more likely to have the resources to answer their question. Be sure to give them contact phone numbers/email address/web address/driving directions/operating hours
- Ask a coworker or supervisor for help
- Take the patron's name and number and offer to contact them when you find something
A strategy I use to try to make reference interactions go more smoothly is this:
- Sometimes it's hard to find the answer with the patron hovering above you watching and waiting. If possible, get the patron started on looking in one area, and then go back to the catalog/database on your own for more thorough research
And to make future reference questions better, here's a checklist about patron interactions in general:
- Have there been a lot of questions on the same topic? If so, is there a way to make this information more readily available for future patrons?
- Pay attention to what kind of questions make you uncomfortable, and then ask for training or explore those areas further
- Remember to show patrons how to do something, instead of just giving them answers. It's also okay to think out loud when working on a question - explaining why you're consulting the resources you are, or why books are in a certain spot in the library, will help the patron and possibly make you think of something you may have otherwise forgotten.
- Look around the Reference Desk - things within reach are probably there for a reason, but can also be the hardest to find if you don't know where they are
- Remember to review applicable common tasks and policies, such as booking museum passes, helping with printing, turning everything on/off
This could definitely be distilled more. At the same time, no checklist will cover every patron interaction, but should at least get people started down the right road. And I'm sure I missed things - what are more tips to give staff new to the Reference Desk?